Bead weaving is making objects by stitching beads together. Sometimes these objects can be soft, textile like and used for clothes, jewelry and accessories. Sometimes they can be very stiff and sculptural. The choice of beads used ranges from tiny seeds and bugles to large glass, acrylic, paper, gemstone or whatever you like beads using many different stitches. I'd like to cover one stitch per feature.
About.com has good instructions for beginners with step by step explanations of every stitch.
I've mentioned beaded sculptural objects. Sometimes they are real sculptures, sometimes pieces of applied art. Variety of stitches is used to make these pieces, usually square, ladder, brick or peyote stitch. Netting and RAW can be used but usually to bead around existing objects, which I won't cover now. Wire is sometimes used instead of thread.
Rrkra has some awesome tutorials
A tutorial by Green1706
Beaded dragon instructions
Beaded cupcake tutorial
Loom work Square stitch Ladder stitch Brick stitch Peyote stitch Tubular Peyote stitch Herringbone stitch Right angle weave Netting Tubular netting Spiral stitch Daisy chain St. Petersburg chain Saraguro African helix